English Title

The Human Supply Chain Behind Smart Technologies


This research project focuses on European companies and African digital labor platforms producing data for BPA (Business Process Automation) solutions.

Time frame




Funding bodies

French National Research Agency (ANR)


Africa (Egypt, Madagascar, Ivory Coast, Senegal, Mauritius)

Europe (France and Germany)


Paola Tubaro, Marion Coville, Clément Le Ludec & Antonio A Casilli (2022, forthcoming) Hidden inequalities: the gendered labour of women on micro-tasking platforms. Internet Policy Review. Accepted with minor revisions

Maxime Cornet, Clément Le Ludec, Elinor Wahal & Mandie Joulin (2022, forthcoming), Beyond ‘platformisation’: Designing a mixed-methods approach to inspect (digital) working conditions through organizational systems? Work Organisation, Labour & Globalisation. Accepted

Paola Tubaro & Antonio A Casilli (2022, Forthcoming), Who bears the burden of a pandemic? COVID-19 and the transfer of risk on digital platform workers. American Behavioral Scientist. Accepted

Paola Tubaro (2022, forthcoming). Social networks and resilience in emerging labour markets. In TABSnijders, ELazega & RWittek (eds.), Social Networks and Social Resilience, Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Paola Tubaro & Antonio A. Casilli (2022, forthcoming). Human listeners and virtual assistants: privacy and labor arbitrage in the production of smart technologies. In FFerrari & MGraham (eds.) Digital Work in the Planetary Market, pp. 175-190, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Antonio A. Casilli (2021). Qu’est-ce qu’une intelligence artificielle “réellement éthique”?. Cahiers du colloque Technologies Emergentes et Sagesse Collective (TESaCo), pp. 71-78, Paris, Institut de France.

Chiara Belletti, Daniel Erdsiek, Ulrich Laitenberger & Paola Tubaro (2021) Crowdworking in France and Germany, ZEW-Kurzexpertise Nr. 21-09, Mannheim, intermediary report HUSH project, <https://www.zew.de/publikationen/crowdworking-in-france-and-germany>

Team Members:

Chiara Belletti

Antonio A. Casilli

Maxime Cornet

Clément Le Ludec

Ulrich Laitenberger

Ngoc-Phung Tran

Paola Tubaro

Elinor Wahal


Polytechnic Institute of Paris – Telecom Paris